County 1124 Super Six tractor with trencher / drainer Bruff BT1

County 1124 Super Six tractor with trencher / drainer Bruff BT1

In all these changes, the elastic demand provided by export markets played a crucial role. Without such export possibilities, areas planted, employment, and agricultural output would have expanded less and mechanization would probably have happened more slowly. (If final demand is very inelastic, mechanization could lead to a reduction in agricultural employment even if extra land is available.) Mechanization can also be induced by labor scarcity arising out of nonagricultural demand for labor (case 2). Production costs rise because wages rise rapidly.
High capital costs (relative to labor) retard mechanization and lead to selective emphasis on power-intensive operations. Machinery design adjusts to high capital costs by lack of convenience features, simplicity, and reduced durability. Energy is only one of the costs of using machines. Capital and maintenance costs are often larger.

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Power-intensive operations are shifted most rapidly to new power sources. Control-intensive operations are shifted to the more mechanized techniques when wages are high or rapidly rising. Power-intensive processing and pumping.
Animals used in these operations are increasingly being replaced by diesel and electric engines. In India in 1972 the number of stationary engines for power-intensive operations was about twenty times that of tractors.
Metallurgical and mathematical knowledge become more important when the design of complex or self-propelled machines needs to be refined; at this stage, engineering staffs of corporations are more effective. These characteristics produce the industrial structure that Evenson described for the United States, but which has occurred wherever mechanization proceeded rapidly.
By the very nature of agriculture, this process must be decentralized and carried out separately for different countries or agroclimatic regions. In choosing how to mechanize, different countries should expect different results from mechanization. In general, mechanization will contribute little to growth in countries without a land frontier and with densely populated farmland-such as Bangladesh, most of India, and China.

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